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October 24, 2005

Perspectives on Neurodevices from Wall Street and VC

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Posted by Zack Lynch

In this wrap-up session, representatives from several key venture capital firms in the neurotechnology space will offer their feedback on the status of the industry and their impressions of the issues discussed during the day.

Alex Arrow of Lazard Capital Markets (the only sell side research firm focused on neurodevices) was the only Wall Street analyst on the panel. He suggested that the key distinction between Walls Street and VC is the following: Wall Street predictions need to good for the next year while VC's need to understand the future 3-8 years out. He put the total US available market for neurodevices at $35 Billion with current indications.

Leslie Bottorff from Onset Ventures, Roger Quy from Technology Partners and Daniel O'Connell from NeuroVentures Capital all agreed that 2005 was an exciting year for neurotech. While 2-3 years ago there was a lot of unknowns, there is now increasing commitment of venture community as the technical clinical risks and market adoption risks for neurodevices have decreased with new products receiving FDA approval.

Other comments included: Lot of synergy between drugs and devices but the combo is still a bit scary for investors. People are still trying to figure out winning business models for drug/device companies (i.e. who gets paid). Neurodevices can provide much more localized delivery of drugs. Medical devices are likely to adopt direct to consumer advertising like pharma has.

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Neurotech Leaders Forum 2005 Conference Review

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Posted by Zack Lynch

Last week I gave an hour long overview of the neurotechnology industry at the Neurotech Leaders Forum, a 2 day conference held annually in San Francisco. The following blogs (found on Brain Waves) cover the highlights of several conference sessions, including:

1) Northstar Neuroscience - Launching a Neurotech Startup
2) Key Events in Neurodevices in the Last Year
3) Getting Government grants in Neurotechnology
4) Five Neurotech Startups Target the Brain
5) Cutting Edge Neurodevice Technologies
6) Perspectives on Neurodevices from Wall Street and VC

These notes took a while to write up so I hope you find them useful and inspiring.

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October 23, 2005

Cutting Edge Neurodevice Technologies - MCS and TMS

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Posted by Zack Lynch

Warren Grill highlighted two areas:

-Motor Cortex Stimulation (MCS) to treat Parkinson's is showing promise in animal models. MCS normalizes rate and pattern of basal ganglia neurons in primates. This week in Neurosurgery an article showed that stimulation appeared to reduce amount of L-Dopa needed.

-TMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation) for migraine headache from Neuralieve looks interesting. The concept is that prior to onset of a migraine a lot of people get an aura, so when people get this feeling that stimulate their cortex with 2 pulses, 5 seconds apart. Neuralieve was founded by the same people who founded NeuroPace.

John Mcdonald, Director of the Spinal Cord Injury Institute spoke about Restorative Therapies' Activity Based Restoration program.

MindCare Centres opended first rTMS clinics for depression. What is rTMS? Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation is a computer controlled magnetic beam applied 20 minutes a day that is non-invasive with minimal/or no side effects. No accidental seizures since 1996. rTMS may apply to many treatment resistant patients in the following markets: depression, anxiety, PTSD, OCD, tinnitus, pain, Parkinson's, migraines, aphasia, stroke (right after event), eating disorders, addiction.

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Five Neurodevice Startups Target the Brain

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Posted by Zack Lynch

Notes from Startups:

Medtrode, Souhile Assaf, CEO: Patented multi-function Deep Brain Stimulation electrode, 75% smaller than what is on the market enabling new treatment paradigms. Electrodes stimulate and record simultaneously. US Patent issued 10 days ago.

Andara Life Science Inc. Mark Carney, CEO: Bioengineering platform; an oscillating field stimulator, implanted in muscle of acute and sub acute injury.

GentCorp, Elisabeth Hager, CEO: Newest venture of Mr. Wilson Greatbatch (inventor of pacemaker). Inventing power source solutions for the neurostimulation market because neurodevices are limited by power. Developed a rechargeable battery for neurostimulation which allows for higher charge and greater longevity than cardiodevices. Battery can last between 10-40 years.

Neuronetrix K.C. Fadem, COO: Neuronetrix has developed an easy-to-use ERP-based system for widespread, high-throughput screening of a variety of neurological disorders. The company’s, patent pending COGNISION™ System uses advanced micro-electronics integrated into a patient-friendly headset to automatically perform a variety of ERP tests. This is the only company I've seen in person who is targeting EEG neuroinformatics market.

NeuroNexus Technologies Daryl Kipke, CEO: The company is focused on becoming the leading supplier of implantable microscale probe systems for establishing chemical and electrical interfaces to the nervous system. Currently a boot strapped startup looking for investment.

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Getting Government Grants in Neurotechnology

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Posted by Zack Lynch

This session examined the role that various government agencies can play in stimulating or inhibiting the growth of the neurotechnology industry. Topics covered include the approval process, reimbursement, oversight, legal issues, and funding opportunities.

Joe Pancrazio from the National Institutes of Health told entrepreneurs to focus on a specific indication and depending on the indication choose one of the 27 NIH institutes, rather than looking for multiple applications of a technology. He also gave an overview of the NIH neuroprosthetics program whose goal is to make it possible for paralyzed individuals to stand and feel balance. He suggested that bladder and bowl control are also important areas of funding.

Gail Schechter of BioIntelligence gave an excellent presentation on best practices in grant writing. She works with companies to ensure that the company staff and scientific advisors work together to prepare documents. Key points: make a case for salaries, equipment, scientific validation of proposed technology, expert feedback to point out both strengths and weakness, and unmet market opportunity are key areas to focus on. Gail's great poem on how grants can make you soar got a well deserved laugh. For more on strategic grant planning contact Gail at Biointelligence.

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Northstar Neuroscience - Launching a Neurotech Start up

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Posted by Zack Lynch

Northstar Neuroscience CEO Alan Levy began the conference with a talk on how to launch a neurotech start-up. Key points:

1) Neurotech investors are looking for a large unmet need, strong IP portfolio, good science, experienced management team and attractive margins.

2) Northstar has developed a platform technology based on stimulation of cortex initially focused on stroke but in clinical trials for other indications. Why cortical stimulation? Unlike Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) which requires extensive brain surgery, cortical stimulation sits on the surface of the brain (the dura) which does not require going deep into the brain, neurosurgeons consider implantation minimally invasive taking less than an hour.

3) Stroke: there are over 1 million a year in the U.S., with over 5 million Americans stroke survivors severely limited in their ability to live normal lives.

4) Cortical stimulation can bring back movement to pre-stroke abilities in rats and monkeys, histological analysis showed that dendrites grow back showing that stimulation accompanies neuroplasticty.

5) Northstar stroke trials: Patients with more than 4 months post stroke. Ranged from 4 months to 8 years. Looking for 10% improvement and what Northstar saw was 20-30% improvement in functions. Improvements are sustained over many months allowing people to go back to work, caring for children etc...Currently in pivotal trial.

6) Second application: Aphasia, 20% of stroke survivors suffer from speech disability. Average Sales Price of 15-20K,

7) IP: More than 40 primary filings in cortical stimulation, generate over 100 patents. Mayfield, Domain, Canaan, Boston Scientific, J&J are investors.

8) We are in healthcare to make a difference. The money will come if you provide real value.

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October 21, 2005

Key Events in Neurodevices This Year

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Posted by Zack Lynch

Jim Cavuoto, Publisher of Neurotech Reports and conference host, gave an excellent talk that covered some of the major events in the neurodevice sector over the past year. These included:

- St. Jude purchase last week of Advanced Neurostimulation (ANSI)
- Cyberonics' VNS approval for Treatment Resistant Depression (first foray of neurodevices into psychiatric illness)
- Rechargeable SCS Onslaught (SCS = spinal cord stimulation)
- Medtronic buying binge - Transneuronix and IGN
- Boston Scientific - Aspect Medical deal (Aspect has a brain state analyzer to help understand what set of part of the patient population might respond to different types of treatments)
- ANSI DBS Entry
- Otto Bock purchase of NeuroDan
- FDA Approvals (Cyberonics VNS for TRD), Medtronic Activa HUD for OCD, Medtronic ONSTIM IDE for ONS (Occipital Nerve Stimulation for Migraine), BSC/Medtronic/ANSI Rechargeable SCS

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October 17, 2005

Advanced Neuromodulation Systems bought by St. Jude - $1.3B

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Posted by Zack Lynch

The hot neurotech M&A market is getting hotter. On Sunday, St. Jude Medical announced that it has struck a deal to buy Texas-based Advanced Neuromodulation Systems Inc. for $1.3 billion.

The acquisition is in an effort capitalize on a new frontier in medical technology which involves using pacemaker technology to stimulate the spinal cord by using small bursts of electricity to treat a potentially vast array of conditions and diseases ranging from Parkinson's disease to obesity.

The neurostimulation market, currently dominated by Medtronic Inc., is estimated at $1 billion now and growing 20 percent annually. With the acquisition, St. Jude gains a solid foothold as No. 2 in the spinal cord stimulation market.

"This is the next hot growth area in medical device technology," Daniel Starks, St. Jude's chairman, president and CEO, said in an interview Sunday. "With this acquisition, we can jump right into it."

Look for more neurotech M&A and IPO activity in the coming months.

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September 22, 2005

Neurotech Leaders to Gather in SF Oct. 21-22

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Posted by Zack Lynch

Business leaders from across the neurotechnology industry will gather in San Francisco for a two-day investment and management conference for neurotech entrepreneurs, executives and investors.

Sessions at the Neurotech Leaders Forum to be held on October 20-21 at the Crowne Plaza Hotel will cover a range of technologies and market segments in the neurodevice sector, including neuromodulation, neural prostheses, neurodiagnostics, and neurostimulation. Attendees will hear from some of the leading researchers and entrepreneurs developing clinically and commercially promising products such as cochlear implants, stroke rehabilitation devices, implanted pain stimulators, neural-computer interfaces, and advanced brain sensing technologies.

The afternoon of the first day of the conference features two intensive courses for neurotechnology professionals, one devoted to funding opportunities and the other to fundamentals of the technology. The second day of the conference features a keynote address from Alan Levy, President and CEO of Northstar Neuroscience Inc. There will also be panel discussions on key issues affecting the industry, such as regulatory and reimbursement issues, licensing, and partnering.

Topics to be covered include: Basics of Neurotechnology with Warren Grill, Ph.D, Senior Technical Editor, Neurotech Reports; Neuropharmacology Industry Fundamentals with Zack Lynch, Managing Director, NeuroInsights; Launching a Neurotech Startup with Alan Levy, Ph.D., President and CEO, Northstar Neuroscience; Neurotechnology Industry Update with James Cavuoto, Editor and Publisher, Neurotech Reports; The Role of Government in Neurotechnology with Glenn Cornett, M.D., Ph.D., Senior Financial Editor, Neurotech Reports, Joe Pancrazio, Ph.D, National Institutes of Health, Jeff Newman, California Technology and Commerce Agency, Gail Schechter, BioIntelligence; Entrepreneur Panel with James Cavuoto, Mark Carney, CEO, Andara Life Science, Elisabeth Hager, CEO, GentCorp., and Andrew Barriskill, CEO, Restorative Therapies, Inc.; New Technologies Panel with Warren Grill and John McDonald, M.D., Ph.D., Director, International Center for Spinal Cord Injury; and Venture Capital Firms Perspective with Leslie Bottorff, Onset Ventures, Roger Quy, Technology Partners, Daniel O'Connell, NeuroVentures Capital, Alex Arrow, Lazard Capital Markets.

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August 26, 2005

Emotional Robots

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Posted by Zack Lynch

I am just finishing a book review for the Lancet Neurology (a British medical journal) on the book, Who Needs Emotions? The Brain Meets the Robot (Oxford University Press, 2005). Since they own the copyright I can't published the review until it appears in print, but here is a glimpse of what I thought the book. Let me know if you have read it and if you agree.

Emotional Robot.jpg
The editors (Jean-Marc Fellous of Duke University and Michael A. Arbib of USC) assembled leading researchers in both fields to bridge the gap between the latest findings in the neurobiology of emotions and state of the art in computer science. Rather than building on the hype surrounding “thinking machines” the book provides a superb scientific analysis of the current state of emotions research in animals, humans and man-made systems. AI researchers are interested leveraging emotions to build systems that can perform unanticipated tasks in unpredictable environments.

The book is divided into four parts, opening with an entertaining conversation between two fictional characters Edison, a theoretical neurobiologist, and Russell, an established roboticist, discussing the important role definitions play in understanding and analyzing emotions. The second part contains several chapters that analyzes the neural mechanisms of emotions in both animals and humans. This is followed by a general discussion of computational architectures of emotions is explored in detail. You'll have to read the book or the review to read the last part, "Beware of the Passionate Robot".

While technical in parts, this book is an important contribution to the emerging field of emotional neurotechnology. It is a stimulating book that is well edited and researched. I highly recommend Who Needs Emotions? for researchers and graduate students across neuroscience and computer science.

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June 17, 2005

Rebuilt: How Becoming Part Computer Made Me More Human by Mike Chorost

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Posted by Zack Lynch

0618378294.01._SCLZZZZZZZ_.jpg Rebuilt: How Becoming Part Computer Made Me More Human is a personal memoir of one man's journey of going deaf and how getting a cochlear implant changed (and continues to change) his life.

Last August Mike Chorost and Eric Lynch (CSO at Sound Pharmaceuticals), gave impressive presentation on current neurodevices for the hearing impaired and future sensoceutical strategies to regenerate hearing at the Bay Area Future salon. Needless to say, it was an awe inspiring example of human performance enablement.

Released this month, Mike's book has received many positive reviews and articles discussing it are coming soon in the New York Times and USA Weekend. For more information about Rebuilt and to download a copy of the first chapter visit Mike Chorost's website.

Mike will be traveling across the US on a book tour for the next two months, including NYC, Boston, Cambridge, New Providence, Menlo Park, Seattle, San Francisco, and many more. I highly recommend reading his book and better yet meeting this Rebuilt Man in person.

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May 31, 2005

Brain Computer Interface Conference 2005, June in NY

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Posted by Zack Lynch

Neurodevices are the fastest growing segment of the medical device market. While they currently generate only a few billion dollars in revenue, the future looks bright.

For those interested in cutting edge research in this area I recommend attending the Third International Meeting of Brain-Computer Interface Technology to be held June 14-19, 2005 in Rensselaerville, New York. The list of meeting participants and neurodevice luminaries is quite impressive already.

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March 03, 2005

Neurotech Industry Update - Neurodevices

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Posted by Zack Lynch

The neurotechnology industry contains three sectors: neurodiagnostics, neuropharmaceuticals and neurodevices. The neurodevice sector includes medical devices, electronic implants and information technology solutions to treat neurological illnesses and psychiatric disorders.

0510covdc.gif

Neurodevices such as cochlear implants for the hearing impaired and neurostimulation devices for the treatment of pain have already improved the quality of life for hundreds of thousands of individuals, their further potential applicability to a broad range of neurological disorders such as stroke, paralysis, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy will drive substantial growth over the next decade.

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February 03, 2005

Cyberonics Neurodevice Receives Approval Recommendation For Depression

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Posted by Zack Lynch

Correction: The FDA didn't approve the device yet, the panel recommended approval after they meet certain requirements for labeling, protocols for dosing, and a few other things - final approval/launch expected in late May.

Cyberonics shares soared Thursday after the FDA reversed an earlier decision and approved its experimental treatment for depression. The neurodevice company's pacemaker-like device, which is surgically implanted into a patient, has been available in the U.S. since 1997 as a treatment for epilepsy. The Vagus Nerve Stimulation Therapy System was approved as a long-term adjunctive treatment for patients over the age of 18 with chronic or recurrent treatment-resistant depression in a major depressive episode that has not responded to at least four adequate antidepressant treatments.

This highlights an important trend in the emerging neurotechnology industry:
neurodevices and neuropharmaceutical companies will increasingly compete for market share as they strive towards developing for better tools to treat mental illnesses. Indeed, Cyberonics already has pilot studies underway to evaluate VNS Therapy as a potential treatment for anxiety disorders, Alzheimer’s disease and chronic headache/migraine.

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January 06, 2005

New Web-based Treatment Tool for Schizophrenia

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Posted by Zack Lynch

Psychnotes reports on a "new Web-based treatment algorithm will be available in January 2005 to help clinicians determine the best medication for patients with schizophrenia. A team of international psychopharmacologists led by Herbert Meltzer, MD of Vanderbilt University Medical Center recently completed the new algorithm designed to offer clinicians a resource as they make treatment decisions.

The project is part of the International Psychopharmacology Algorithm Project (IPAP) with the goal of developing new Web-based tools to improve the treatment of psychiatric disorders.

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July 13, 2004

Think and It Shall Be Done

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Posted by Zack Lynch

The Boston Globe's Carey Goldberg reports today on a novel non-invasive technique that allows individuals to "Literally" turn thoughts into actions. The pioneering technique developed by Seung-Schik Yoo and detailed in this week's NeuroReport used an fMRI scanner to analyze the activity of volunteers' brains and translate it into moves they could make in a maze.

Yoo and his colleagues began the experiment by doing a bit of brain-mapping on the subjects, determining which areas most ''lit up" during the different kinds of thought. They then linked the pattern for each type of thought to computer control of the cursor. ''What we do is translate thought into distinct categories and, amazingly, we can do that," he said. ''We can detect classes of thought." And that is only the beginning, he said. He said he believes it is possible to detect 20 or more classes of thought, enough to allow a patient to move a cursor on a virtual typewriter.

But don't expect great things like mind reading anytime soon suggested Stanford's Christopher deCharm, "That is still decades away." Now that's a prediction that's directly within the timeline of our emerging neurosociety. Think cognitive liberty is important yet?

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July 09, 2004

Cognitive-based Neural Prosthetics

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Posted by Zack Lynch

An article in this week's Science, cognitive control signals for neural prosthetics, reports on how neurophysiologists have developed a method for eavesdropping on neurons in a cognitive brain area involved in planning future arm movements.

While today's first-generation neural prosthetics focus on decoding the intended hand trajectories from motor cortical neurons of paralyzed patients and then using these signals to control external devices, the second-generation devices described in this research appear to have the capability of monitoring a paralyzed patient's preferences and motivation. From the article:

"For example, a goal signal indicates the intention to reach for an apple, whereas a trajectory signal would indicate the intended direction of the hand movement during the reach. Another high-level signal of interest is expected value, which is used for making decisions. For instance, if an individual has two potential reach goals, an apple and an orange, and the subject prefers apples over oranges, there are signals in his or her brain that indicate this preference and will influence the decision to reach for the apple instead of the orange.

Future applications of cognitive-based prosthetics will likely record from multiple cortical areas to derive a number of variables. Moreover, online trajectory information can also be considered as a cognitive variable that can be decoded along with other cognitive variables."

While neuroelectronics are primarily in the research phase, their potential uses will be numerous as non-invasive brain monitoring techniques become less expensive and more accurate. Just think of the neurofinance applications.

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June 18, 2004

Cyberonics' Neuroelectronics Device to Relieve Depression

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Posted by Zack Lynch

Neuroelectronics device manufacturer Cyberonics received preliminary approval for a surgical implant to treat severe depression. It is the first time an implanted device has been recommended for the treatment of a psychiatric disorder.

Using a technique known as vagus nerve stimulation, the implanted device uses electrodes implanted in the neck to activate brain regions that are believed to regulate mood. The involves connecting a wire to the left vagus nerve in the side of the neck; a battery is implanted high in the left chest or under the armpit, and the amount of current can be regulated externally. Typically, the implant sends a 30-second pulse of current followed by a five-minute pause, 24 hours a day.

The Neurological Devices Panel of FDA’s Medical Devices Advisory Committee voted 5 to 2 to recommend approval with conditions of Cyberonics’ VNS Therapy™ System “as an adjunctive long-term treatment of chronic or recurrent depression for patients over the age of 18 who are experiencing a major depressive episode that has not had an adequate response to four or more adequate antidepressant treatments. The stock, CYBX, surged 70% on the news.

While it is clear from the committee's recommendation that several emoticeuticals to treat depression must first be tried, the recommendation highlights an important trend in the emerging neurotechnology industry: neuroceutical makers and neuroelectronics manufacturers will increasingly compete for market share as they strive towards developing for better tools to treat mental illnesses. Indeed, Cyberonics already has pilot studies underway to evaluate VNS Therapy as a potential treatment for anxiety disorders, Alzheimer’s disease and chronic headache/migraine.

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June 02, 2004

Neuroeletronics Driven by Global Youth

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Posted by Zack Lynch

One of the fastest growing sectors of the emerging neurotechnology industry is the neuroelectronics sector. One particular market, implanted devices that translate external sensory stimuli into electrical signals to and from our central nervous systems (e.g., cochlear implants by Epic Biosonics, retinal implants by Optobionics, and brain implants) is witnessing 30% annual growth and shows little sign of slowing down.

While some may question whether or not implants will become social acceptable, Spanish clubbers are already signing up in droves for implanted RFID chips in order to jump the queue. "Clubbers in Spain are choosing to receive a microchip implant instead of carrying a membership card. It is the latest and perhaps the most unlikely of uses for implantable radio frequency ID chips," reports the Scientists. While implants will remain an important growth market for the next decade, it will ultimately be eclipsed by neuroceutical alternatives.

My bet is that the mass global youth culture (ages 13-23: more than half of the world's population) will choose audioceuticals to protect their hearing before they give up their privacy.

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April 27, 2004

Neurotechnology Aids Alzheimer's Research in China

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Posted by Zack Lynch

East China Normal University (ECNU) established the Shanghai Institute of Brain Functional Genomics in 2002. Brain Functional Genomics presents a new multidisciplinary field that aims to study the function of genes and their dynamical interactions through systematic analyses at molecular, physiological and behavioral levels in both genetically modified and unmodified animals.

Recently, the Institute of Brain Functional Genomics purchased several Multichannel Acquisition Processor (MAP) Systems for neural signal acquisition and analysis research on Alzheimer's disease. The hope is that this neuroelectronic system will accelerate the acquisition of neural data, enabling researchers to understand the gene mutation responsible for the early onset of Alzheimer's disease.

Plexon, the manufacturer of the MAP system supplies tools for basic brain and nervous system communication research, neural biosensors for drug and environmental screening, brain machine interfaces and neuroprosthetics for the growing neurotechnology industry. Plexon's current customers include over 250 domestic and international academic research labs, research hospitals and pharmaceutical companies.

As I've mentioned before, China's growing mental health care crisis is driving it to leverage the latest neurotechnologies. This is just one of the latest examples.

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April 20, 2004

Neurotechnology Research Grants (Revisited)

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Posted by Zack Lynch

The Department of Health and Human Services recently announced additional funding for the neurotechnology research, development and enhancement program.

As I have written previously, neurotechnology is being driven by the convergence of advances in Nanotechnology, Information Technology, Biotechnology and Cognitive Science (NBIC -- pronounced N-bic). Mike Roco, the man who has spear headed the National Nanotechnology Initiative over the past decade, is now targeting the NSF's attention on creating a similiar initiative to understand how NBIC technologies will create new tools to enhance human performance.

I have grouped the examples used in the Neurotechnology Program Announcement into their respective technology sector to show that all four of these areas are required for neurotechnology to fully develop. I have also tried to find links to relatively close examples of each technology for those who wish dive deeper. (Many of these technologies could fall into multiple categories. For example, drug delivery systems are likely to require nanobiotechnology for significant breakthroughs to emerge.)

Neurotechnology Program Research Objectives

This program seeks to enable neuroscience and behavioral research by soliciting research and development of novel tools and approaches for the study of the development, structure, and function of the brain. Technologies that are appropriate include: hardware, software, and wetware (and combinations of thereof) that would be used to study the brain or behavior in basic or clinical research.

Nanotechnology
1. Nanocrystals or quantum dots covalently bonded to neural receptor ligands
2. Microfluidic systems for in-vivo spatial and temporal delivery of biomolecules
3. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) used for monitoring neurons
4. Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) used for monitoring neurons
5. Amplifiers for mice to record neural activity from many neurons
6. Non-invasive optical imaging instruments
7. Tools for detection of acute neurological events
8. Improved electrodes, microcomputer interfaces, and microcircuitry

Information Technology
1. Software to translate neuroimaging data from one data format into another
2. Algorithms for understanding human neuroimaging data
3. Tools for real-time analysis of neurophysiological events
4. Dynamic monitors of intracranial pressure and spinal fluid composition
5. Devices for non-invasive diagnosis and precise identification of pathogens
6. Tools, technologies and algorithms for neuroprosthesis development
7. Non-invasive tools to assess damage, monitor function in brain tissue
8. Tools for data mining into genomics and proteomics of the nervous system

Biotechnology
1. Proteome analysis arrays, proteome data storage, analysis of proteome data
2. Genetic approaches to study structure or function of neural circuits in animals
3. Biosensors that would be selectively activated by neurochemicals
4. Delivery systems for drugs, gene transfer vectors, and cells
5. Probes of brain gene expression that can be imaged non-invasively
6. Genetic approaches to manipulate or monitor synaptic activity
7. Tools for intervention and prevention of acute neurological events

Cognitive Science
1. Non-invasive methods for in-vivo tracking of implanted cells
2. Tools to enhance visualization of specific brain markers
3. New methods to study neural connectivity in living or post mortem brain,
4. Tools for early-warning detection of imminent seizure activity
5. Methods to facilitate high-throughput analysis of behavior
6. Tools for therapeutic electrical stimulation for rehabilitation

Just as previous techno-economic waves have been driven by the convergence of multiple technologies from different sectors, so too will the neurotechnology wave. To understand how our emerging neurosociety may take shape, it is critical to understand how the NBIC convergence will drive the neurotechnology wave.

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